Reproductive human body subsystem includes external genitalia (penis and vulva), gamete-producing gonads (testicles and ovaries), oviducts, vagina, semen, sperm, cervix, uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovum; male reproductive system with scrotum, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, vas deferens, spermatozoa (sperm), penis, urethra, Cowper’s gland, androgen, and testosterone; and female reproductive system with vulva, vagina, vaginal opening, uterus, ovaries, ova, breasts, labia, clitoris, urethra, Bartholin’s glands, cervix, Fallopian tubes, pituitary gland, endometrium.
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Respiratory human body subsystem includes lungs; hilum; respiratory tract divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract; upper tract including the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds; lower tract including the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli; respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree, which is the branching airways of the lower tract; branching “generations”, which are the intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of “tree”; the earlier generations (approximately generations 0–16), consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli (approximately generations 17–23); bronchioles, which are small airways lacking any cartilaginous support; first bronchi to branch from the trachea which are the right and left main bronchi; secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi; tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi; subsegmental bronchi; alveoli which are the dead end terminals of the “tree”; paranasal sinuses (frontal and sphenoid); nose with nasal cavity, nasal conchae, and nasal vestibule; pharynx; larynx with epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage; vocal folds; trachea with carina of trachea; main bronchi; lingular division bronchi; right lung with superior lobe, horizontal fissure, oblique fissure, middle lobe, and inferior lobe; diaphragm; lobar bronchus (superior, inferior, middle); left lung with superior lobe, apex of left lung, oblique fissure, cardiac notch, lingula of lung, and inferior lobe; tracheal and bronchi rings; esophagus; orgal cavity; capillary beds, connective tissue, alveolar sacs, alveolar duct, mucous gland, mucosal lining, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, atrium, and alveoli.
Skeletal human body subsystem includes endoskeleton; bone with osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, bone tissue, marrow, endosteum and periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage; joint cells; perichondrium tissue; ligaments; tendons; and cytoskeleton.
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