Integumentary human body subsystem includes skin (with epidermis and dermis), hypodermis, hair, and nails.
Exocrine human body subsystem includes exocrine glands, which include apocrine glands (ceruminous gland, mammary gland, Moll’s gland), sebaceous glands (Tyson’s gland, Meibomian gland, Gland of Zeis, Montgomery gland, Fordyce spot), sweat gland, salivary gland, lacrimal gland, prostate gland, and mucous gland; and liver and pancreas, which are both exocrine and endocrine glands.
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Immune human body subsystem includes surface barriers, tears and urine, mucus, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, skin and respiratory tracts that secrete antimicrobial peptides, saliva, tears, breast milk, vaginal secretions, semen, stomach, gastric acid, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts with commensal flora; innate immune system with immune sensing, innate immune cells, inflammation, and humoral defenses; and adaptive immune system with recognition of antigen, antigen presentation to t lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity (with killer t cells, helper t cells, gamma delta t cells), humoral immune response, and immunological memory.
Lymphatic human body subsystem includes primary lymphoid organs (with bone marrow and thymus), secondary lymphoid organs (with spleen and lymph nodes), tertiary lymphoid organs, other lymphoid tissue, lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphocytes, tonsils, stromal cells, mucosas, lymphatic capillaries, lymph ducts, right lymphatic duct, left lymphatic duct, thoracic duct, and subclavian veins.
Muscular human body subsystem includes skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
Nervous human body subsystem includes neurons, glial cells, nervous tissue; central nervous system (CNS) consisting of the brain and spinal cord; peripheral nervous system (PNS) consisting mainly of nerves, axons, and divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems; somatic nerves mediating voluntary movement; the autonomic nervous system further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems; the sympathetic nervous system activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy; the parasympathetic nervous system activated when organisms are in a relaxed state; the enteric nervous system functioning to control the gastrointestinal system; autonomic and enteric nervous systems that both function involuntarily; cranial nerves that exit from the cranium; spinal nerves that exit from the spinal cord; motor nerves or efferent nerves; sensory nerves or afferent; spinal nerves, which are mixed nerves that serve as both motor nerves or efferent nerves, and sensory nerves or afferent; neurotransmitters; chemical synapses; neural pathways, and neural circuits.
Renal and urinary human body subsystem includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, renal arteries, renal vein, and nephrons.
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