This is my second overview on the joints and ligaments of the human body—with the full human-body joint and ligament names—for my biotech R&D, especially in human longevity biotech and other medical biotechnologies. Wikipedia is used as the main reference. I haven’t had the time to check the proper pronunciations, so I’ll improve my pronunciations in the next version, and mispronounce some, if not all, words in this version.Human-body joints have Types, Terminology, Motions, and Components.Human-body joint Types include Fibrous joints (Gomphosis joint [also known as a dentoalveolar syndesmosis, or ‘peg and socket joint’], Suture joint, Syndesmosis joint, Interosseous membrane connective tissue), Cartilaginous joints (Synchondrosis joint, Symphysis joint); synovial joint (also known as diarthrosis), which include Plane joint, 1° (Hinge joint, Pivot joint), 2° (Condyloid joint, Saddle joint), 3° (Ball and socket joint); synostosis; by range of motion, which include Synarthrosis joint, Amphiarthrosis joint, Diarthrosis (also known as synovial joint).Human-body joint Terminology includes Kinesiology, Anatomical terms of motion, Agonist muscles (also called prime movers) and Antagonist muscles.Human-body joint Motions include general motions, which include Flexion (bending movement) and Extension (straightening movement), Adduction motion and Abduction motion, Internal rotation and External rotation, Elevation movement (in a superior direction) and Depression movement (in an inferior direction); specialized upper limbs motions, which include Protraction anterior movement and Retraction posterior movement, Supination anterior rotational movement and Pronation posterior rotational movement; specialized lower limbs motions, which include Plantarflexion (bending movement) and Dorsiflexion (bending movement), Eversion movement or motion and Inversion movement or motion.Human-body joint Components include capsular, which include Joint capsule or articular capsule (Synovial membrane connective tissue, Fibrous membrane connective tissue), Synovial fluid (also called synovia), Synovial bursa sac, Articular disk fibrocartilage and Meniscus (fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure); extracapsular, which include Ligament (fibrous connective tissue), Enthesis (connective tissue).Joints and ligaments of the human head and neck include temporomandibular joints (TMJ), and atlanto-occipital joint.Temporomandibular joints (TMJ) include articular capsule (capsular ligament), Articular disk, Lateral (Temporomandibular ligament [also known as the external lateral ligament]), Medial (Sphenomandibular ligament, Stylomandibular ligament).Atlanto-occipital joint includes atlantooccipital articulation capsules, membranes (Anterior atlantooccipital membrane [anterior atlantooccipital ligament], posterior atlantooccipital membrane [posterior atlantooccipital ligament]).Joints and ligaments of the human arm include Shoulder, Elbow, Forearm, and Hand.
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