Some notes on writing a Java software program (pt10)

All class and array types inherit the methods of class Object; the method clone is used to make a duplicate of an object; the method equals defines a notion of object equality, which is based on value, not reference, comparison; the method finalize is run just before an object is destroyed; the method getClass returns the Class object that represents the class of the object; a Class object exists for each reference type, which can be used to discover the fully qualified name of a class, its members, its immediate superclass, and any interfaces that it implements; a class method that is declared synchronized synchronizes on the monitor associated with the Class object of the class; the method hashCode is very useful, together with the method equals, in hashtables such as java.util.HashMap; the methods wait, notify, and notifyAll are used in concurrent programming using threads; the method toString returns a String representation of the object.(Early-plugs insertion point. A few seconds of silence in audiovisual.)Instances of class String represent sequences of Unicode code points. A String object has a constant (unchanging) value. String literals and text blocks are references to instances of class String. The string concatenation operator + implicitly creates a new String object when the result is not a constant expression.Two reference types are the same compile-time type if they are declared in compilation units associated with the same module, and they have the same binary name, and their type arguments, if any, are the same, applying this definition recursively.When two reference types are the same, they are sometimes said to be the same class or the same interface.At run time, several reference types with the same binary name may be loaded simultaneously by different class loaders. These types may or may not represent the same type declaration. Even if two such types do represent the same type declaration, they are considered distinct.Two reference types are the same run-time type if they are both class or both interface types, are defined by the same class loader, and have the same binary name, in which case they are sometimes said to be the same run-time class or the same run-time interface; they are both array types, and their component types are the same run-time type.A type variable is an unqualified identifier used as a type in class, interface, method, and constructor bodies.A type variable is introduced by the declaration of a type parameter of a generic class, interface, method, or constructor.

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