A variable of an array type can hold a null reference or a reference to an array. A variable of class type Object can hold a null reference or a reference to any object, whether class instance or array.Chapter 5 describes conversions and numeric promotions. Conversions change the compile-time type and, sometimes, the value of an expression. These conversions include the boxing and unboxing conversions between primitive types and reference types. Numeric promotions are used to convert the operands of a numeric operator to a common type where an operation can be performed. There are no loopholes in the language; casts on reference types are checked at run time to ensure type safety.(Early-plugs insertion point. A few seconds of silence in audiovisual.)Chapter 6 describes declarations and names, and how to determine what names mean (that is, which declaration a name denotes). The Java programming language does not require classes and interfaces, or their members, to be declared before they are used. Declaration order is significant only for local variables, local classes, local interfaces, and the order of field initializers in a class or interface. Recommended naming conventions that make for more readable programs are described in this chapter.Chapter 7 describes the structure of a program, which is organized into packages. The members of a package are classes, interfaces, and subpackages. Packages, and consequently their members, have names in a hierarchical name space; the Internet domain name system can usually be used to form unique package names. Compilation units contain declarations of the classes and interfaces that are members of a given package, and may import classes and interfaces from other packages to give them short names.Packages may be grouped into modules that serve as building blocks in the construction of very large programs. The declaration of a module specifies which other modules (and thus packages, and thus classes and interfaces) are required in order to compile and run code in its own packages.The Java programming language supports limitations on external access to the members of packages, classes, and interfaces. The members of a package may be accessible solely by other members in the same package, or by members in other packages of the same module, or by members of packages in different modules. Similar constraints apply to the members of classes and interfaces.Chapter 8 describes classes. The members of classes are classes, interfaces, fields (variables) and methods. Class variables exist once per class. Class methods operate without reference to a specific object.
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