Advancing biotech, such as the human longevity biotech, requires knowing everything about the human anatomy. In this presentation, I’ll go over all the names of all the 650 skeletal muscles in the adult human body, for advancing biotech, using Wikipedia as the main reference. The knowledge on human skeletal muscles is also used in advancing humanoid robotics.
The human body has five major muscle groups, which are head muscle group, neck muscle group, torso muscle group, upper limb muscle group, and lower limb muscle group.
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The head muscle group has forehead and eyelid muscles, extraocular muscles, ear muscles, nose muscles, mouth muscles, mastication muscles, tongue muscles (extrinsic tongue muscles and intrinsic tongue muscles), soft palate muscles, pharynx muscles, and larynx muscles.
The forehead and eyelid muscles are occipitofrontalis, occipitalis, frontalis, orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and depressor supercilii.
The extraocular muscles are levator palpebrae superioris, superior tarsal (Muller’s Muscle), superior rectus muscle, inferior rectus muscle, medial rectus muscle, lateral rectus muscle, superior oblique muscle, inferior oblique muscle.
The ear muscles are temporoparietalis, auricularis anterior, auricularis superior, auricularis posterior, stapedius, and tensor tympani.
The nose muscles are procerus muscle, depressor septi nasi, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, compressor naris, and dilator naris.
The mouth muscles are levator anguli oris (caninus), depressor anguli oris (triangularis), levator labii superioris, depressor labii inferioris, mentalis, buccinator, orbicularis oris, risorius, major zygomatic muscle, and minor zygomatic muscle.
The mastication muscles are masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid muscle, and medial pterygoid muscle.
The extrinsic tongue muscles are genioglossus, hyoglossus, chondroglossus, styloglossus, and palatoglossus; the intrinsic tongue muscles are superior longitudinal, transversus, inferior longitudinal, and verticalis.
The soft palate muscles are tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, and palatine uvula.
The pharynx muscles are stylopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus, inferior pharyngeal muscle, middle pharyngeal muscle, and superior pharyngeal muscle.
The larynx muscles are cricothyroid, arytenoid (transverse and oblique), thyroarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, and lateral cricoarytenoid muscle.
The neck muscle group has clavicular muscles, suprahyoid muscles, infrahyoid muscles, and neck muscles (anterior neck muscles, lateral neck muscles, posterior neck muscles).
The clavicular muscles are platysma, and sternocleidomastoid.
The suprahyoid muscles are digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, and geniohyoid.
The infrahyoid muscles are sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, and omohyoid.
The anterior neck muscles are longus colli, longus capitis, rectus capitis anterior, and rectus capitis lateralis; the lateral neck muscles are anterior scalene muscle, medius scalene muscle, posterior scalene muscle, levator scapulae, rectus capitis lateralis, obliquus capitis superior, and obliquus capitis inferior; the posterior neck muscles are rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, semispinalis capitis, longissimus capitis, splenius capitis, obliquus capitis superior, and obliquus capitis inferior.
The torso muscle group has abdomen muscles, back muscles, chest muscles, pelvis muscles, and perineum muscles.
The abdomen muscles are rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, pyramidalis, and quadratus lumborum.
The back muscles are erector spinae (with iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis), latissimus dorsi, transversospinales (with semispinalis thoracis [dorsi], semispinalis cervicis [colli], semispinalis capitis [complexus], multifidus, and rotatores), interspinales, intertransversarii, splenius capitis, and splenius cervicis.
The chest muscles are external intercostal muscles, internal intercostal muscles, innermost intercostal muscle, subcostales, transversus thoracis, levatores costarum, serratus posterior inferior muscle, serratus posterior superior muscle, and diaphragm.
The pelvis muscles are coccygeus, and levator ani (with iliococcygeus muscle, pubococcygeus muscle, and puborectalis muscle).
The perineum muscles are external anal sphincter, internal anal sphincter, superficial perineal pouch muscles (transverse perineal muscles, bulbospongiosus muscle, and ischiocavernosus muscle), and deep perineal pouch muscles (transverse perineal muscles, and urethral sphincters).
The upper limb muscle group has vertebral column muscles, thoracic wall muscles, shoulder muscles, arm muscles (anterior compartment arm muscles, and posterior compartment arm muscles), forearm muscles (superficial anterior compartment forearm muscles, deep anterior compartment forearm muscles, superficial posterior compartment forearm muscles, deep posterior compartment forearm muscles), hand muscles (lateral volar or thenar hand muscles, medial volar hand muscles, and intermediate hand muscles).
The vertebral column muscles are trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboids (with rhomboid major, rhomboid minor), and levator scapulae.
The thoracic wall muscles are pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius, and serratus anterior.
The shoulder muscles are deltoid, teres major, and rotator cuff (with supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis).
The anterior compartment arm muscles are coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis; the posterior compartment arm muscles are triceps brachii, and anconeus.
The superficial anterior compartment forearm muscles are pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor digitorum superficialis; the deep anterior compartment forearm muscles are pronator quadratus, flexor digitorum profundus, and flexor pollicis longus; the superficial posterior compartment forearm muscles are extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, and mobile wad (with brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, and extensor carpi radialis brevis); the deep posterior compartment forearm muscles are supinator, extensor indicis, and anatomical snuff box boundary muscles (which are abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor pollicis longus).
The lateral volar or thenar hand muscles are opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis; the medial volar hand muscles are palmaris brevis, and hypothenar muscles (abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi); the intermediate hand muscles are lumbrical, dorsal interossei, and palmar interossei.
The lower limb muscle group has iliac region muscles, gluteal muscles, thigh muscles (anterior compartment thigh muscles, posterior compartment (hamstring) thigh muscles, and medial compartment thigh muscles), leg muscles (anterior compartment leg muscles, superficial posterior compartment leg muscles, deep posterior compartment leg muscles, and lateral compartment leg muscles), and foot muscles (dorsal foot muscles, first layer plantar foot muscles, second layer plantar foot muscles, third layer plantar foot muscles, and fourth layer plantar foot muscles).
The iliac region muscles are iliopsoas (with psoas major, psoas minor, and iliacus).
The gluteal muscles are tensor fasciae latae, gluteal muscles or glutes (with gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus), lateral rotator group (with piriformis, obturator externus), and superior gemellus (with obturator internus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris).
The anterior compartment thigh muscles are articularis genus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris (with rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis); the posterior compartment (hamstring) thigh muscles are biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus; the medial compartment thigh muscles are adductor muscles of the hip (with gracilis, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, and adductor magnus).
The anterior compartment leg muscles are tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, and fibularis tertius; the superficial posterior compartment leg muscles are triceps surae (with gastrocnemius and soleus), and plantaris; the deep posterior compartment leg muscles are popliteus, and tarsal tunnel muscles (flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior); the lateral compartment leg muscles are fibularis longus, and fibularis brevis.
The dorsal foot muscles are extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis brevis, and dorsal interossei of foot; the first layer plantar foot muscles are abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi; the second layer plantar foot muscles are quadratus plantae, and lumbricals; the third layer plantar foot muscles are flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, and flexor digiti minimi brevis; the fourth layer plantar foot muscles are plantar interossei, and dorsal interossei.
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