Advancing biotech, such as the human longevity biotech, requires knowing everything about the human anatomy. In this presentation, I’ll go over all the names of all the 206 bones in the adult human body, for advancing biotech, using Wikipedia as the main reference.
The human skeleton has six major areas or bone segments, which are spine (vertebral column), chest (thorax), head, upper limb (upper arm, forearm and hand), pelvis (pelvic girdle), and lower limb (thigh, leg and foot).
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A fully grown adult human body has 26 bones in the spine; cervical vertebrae have 7 bones (C1 to C7); thoracic vertebrae have 12 bones (T1 to T12); lumbar vertebrae have 5 bones (L1 to L5); sacrum is one bone; coccygeal vertebrae are set of 4 bones at birth, some or all of which fuse together.
A fully grown adult human body has 25 bones in the chest; sternum is 1 or 3 bones; 24 ribs in the rib cage, in 12 pairs; cervical ribs are extra ribs that occur in some people.
A fully grown adult human body has 29 bones in the head; eight cranial bones comprise one occipital bone, two parietal bones, one frontal bone, two temporal bones, one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone; 15 facial bones comprise two nasal bones, two maxillae (upper jaw), two lacrimal bones, two zygomatic bones (cheek bones), two palatine bones, two inferior nasal concha, one vomer, one hyoid bone, and one mandible; the middle ears have six bones in total, three on each side, which are malleus, incus, and stapes.
A fully grown adult human body has 64 bones in the upper limb (upper arm, forearm, and hand), 32 in each upper limb; six upper arm bones in total, 3 on each side, which are humerus, and scapula and clavicle in pectoral girdle (shoulder); four lower arm bones in total, two on each side, which are ulna (lined up with pinky) and radius (lined up with thumb);
54 hand bones in total, 27 in each hand, which are eight carpal bones (scaphoid bone, lunate bone, triquetral bone, pisiform bone, trapezium, trapezoid bone, capitate bone, and hamate bone), five metacarpal bones (numbered I to V in the Roman numeral), 14 hand phalanx bones or hand phalanges with five hand proximal phalanges, four hand intermediate phalanges, and five hand distal phalanges.
The pelvis (or hip bone) is made up of three regions that have fused to form two coxal bones. They are the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The sacrum and coccyx attach to the two hip bones to form the pelvis, but are more important to the spinal column, where they are counted. The pelvis is one of two bones used to determine the sex of a skeleton, which is determined by examining the size of the greater sciatic notch (also known as the pelvic opening).
A fully grown adult human body has 60 bones in the lower limb (thigh, leg and foot), 30 in each lower limb, which are one femur, one patella or kneecap, one tibia, one fibula, and 26 foot bones with seven tarsal bones in tarsus (calcaneus or heel bone, talus, navicular bone, medial cuneiform bone, intermediate cuneiform bone, lateral cuneiform bone, and cuboid bone), five metatarsal bones or metatarsus (the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal bones often depicted with Roman numerals), and 14 foot phalanx bones or foot phalanges with five foot proximal phalanges, four foot intermediate phalanges, and five foot distal phalanges.
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